Although there are many people who are fascinated with the sport of kayaking and would really like to give it a try, the fact is that the fear of capsizing prevents many novice paddlers from taking up the sport and, those that do, often purchase kayaks with a very high degree of initial stability.
However, while this may seem like a wise choice to those who are not familiar with kayak hull design, the fact is that both wide and narrow kayaks have both advantages and disadvantages over the other that make each type more suitable for a given purpose.
The wise novice paddler will take the time to learn the difference between initial and secondary stability and how they each affect kayak hull performance so that they can choose their kayak accordingly.
So, what does the term “initial stability” mean and why is initial stability important when choosing a kayak?
Well, the answer to that question is that initial stability (aka primary stability) is a measure of the resistance of a boat’s hull to small changes in the vertical forces applied to either side of its hull.
In other words, it is a measure of how easy or difficult it is to cause a kayak to lean to one side or the other by either shifting its center of gravity by leaning to one side or the other or, by the force of a wave lifting the kayak and thus, causing it to tilt. Therefore, the wider a kayak’s hull is, the greater its degree of initial stability will be.
Consequently, when choosing a kayak, choosing one with a wider hull (aka a higher degree of initial stability) will cause the kayak to feel more stable when paddling on calm water which many novice paddlers find appealing because it provides them with an increased sense of security. However, at the same time, it will also make it more difficult for the paddler to lean the kayak on its side in order to perform an edged turn which requires far less effort than a sweeping turn while remaining upright.
But, because most novice paddlers only paddle on relatively calm waters, they very rarely, if ever, venture out on rough seas. Therefore, they never truly experience the disadvantage of having a kayak with a high degree of initial stability.
However, the fact is that while having a high degree of initial stability is a wonderful feature for novice kayakers paddling on calm water, it is a far less desirable feature among more experienced kayakers who like to purposely lean their kayaks on edge when turning as well as negotiating rough seas because a wide kayak hull tends to roll far more severely than a narrow kayak hull.
Therefore, more experienced paddlers often prefer a kayak with a high degree of secondary stability over one with a high degree of initial stability.
If initial stability is a measure of how stable a kayak is when the paddler is sitting upright in the cockpit, then…
Secondary stability is a measure of how stable a kayak is when the kayak is purposely leaned on its side by the paddler.
So, why is secondary stability important when choosing a kayak? Well, the answer to that question is that while paddling a kayak with a relatively wide hull works well when paddling on calm water, it does not work very well when paddling in waves or rapids.
Of course, the reason for this is because the wider a kayak’s hull is, the more surface area it has for waves and rapids to push against and thus, the easier it is for a wave or rapid to lift the hull and tilt the kayak onto its side and cause it to capsize. At the same time, because wider kayaks make it more difficult for a paddler to lean the kayak onto its side, the more difficult it is for a paddler to counteract the lifting action of the wave.
Consequently, wide kayaks are wonderful when paddling on calm water because the wider a kayak’s hull is, the more resistant the kayak is to being capsized by the paddler. But, they are not a good choice when paddling in rough seas because, in order to remain upright while paddling in waves, a paddler must purposely lean their kayak onto one side as they ride up the face of a wave and then onto the other as they ride down the other face.
Therefore, when paddling in rough seas, kayaks with a high degree of secondary stability are more desirable than kayaks with a high degree of initial stability because the ability to make minute adjustments in the center of gravity on a moment’s notice is of paramount importance to remaining upright.
Tippy vs. Stable Kayaks
So, now that you know the difference between initial and secondary stability, it is time to answer the question of how they each relate to tippy versus stable kayaks.
Thus, the short answer to that question is that “tippy” kayaks by definition have relatively narrow beams (width at the widest point) and thus, they have a low degree of initial stability but a high degree of secondary stability. On the other hand, “stable” kayaks by definition have relatively wide beams and thus, they have a high degree of initial stability but a low degree of secondary stability.
Therefore, so called “stable” kayaks are best suited for padding on calm water while so called “tippy” kayaks are better suited for paddling on rough seas.
Last, but not least, yet another issue related to “tippy” versus “stable” kayaks is that the more narrow a kayak’s hull is, the more efficient it is and thus, the faster is. While, conversely, the wider a kayak’s hull is, the less efficient it is and thus, the slower it is.
Thus, while this issue is unrelated to stability, it is related to the relative width of a kayak’s hull and thus, it too should be considered when purchasing a kayak because the less efficient a kayak’s hull design is, the more effort it will require from the paddler to maneuver and propel it.
Nonetheless, suffice to say that most novice paddlers prefer to paddle a highly stable kayak on calm water while more experience paddlers often prefer a little more challenge. Thus, they tend to prefer a tippy kayak because they often venture far from shore and sometimes choose to play in rough seas.
When choosing a kayak, it is extremely important that you choose one with the right amount of initial and secondary stability for your skill level and intended purpose.